Flipped classroom: An investigation into learner engagement during non-face-to-face components
Keywords:flipped classroom, ICAP framework, online learning, scaffolding, student engagement
This paper investigated student engagement on the non-face-to-face component of the flipped approach in a critical thinking and writing class. Drawing from flipped approach and learner engagement literature and using an adapted version of Chi and Wylie’s Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive (ICAP) framework (2014), the study looked specifically at student engagement in non-face-to-face activities and tasks, namely video lectures, readings, tutorial materials, quizzes, and discussion forums. A total of 71 respondents were involved in the study. A self-perception survey designed to understand the level of student engagement was administered. Findings show that for activities of viewing e-lectures and doing assigned readings, most respondents displayed passive engagement, with a good proportion exhibiting active and constructive behaviours. However, there is an increased number of respondents who showed active and constructive engagement in going through materials in preparation for face-to-face tutorials, as well as in completing the online quizzes. Interactive engagement is not obvious. This study suggests that more strategic scaffolding provided for students could result in a higher level of effectiveness in learner engagement as well as a need to re-look at the design of the materials, activities, and tasks if the intent is to mediate interactive engagement.
Keywords: Flipped classroom, ICAP framework, Online learning, Scaffolding, Student engagement
How to cite this article:
Lee, K.C., Goh, H., Teng, J. & Wong, K.W. 2020. Flipped classroom: An investigation into learner engagement during non-face-to-face components. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in the South. 4(2): 118-137. https://doi.org/10.36615/sotls.v4i2.116.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
How to Cite
The copyright to this article is transferred to Sotls (including without limitation, the right to publish the work in whole or in part in any and all forms of media, now or hereafter known) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication thus granting Sotls all rights for the work so that both parties may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use.
The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline,online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.
The authors warrant that their contribution is an original work not published elsewhere, that they have the full power to make this grant and that the article contains no matter unlawful or which invades the right to privacy or infringes any proprietary right.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers
It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyright holder).
Permission is required for:
1. Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
2. Substantial extracts from anyones’ works or a series of works.
3. Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
4. Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for:
1. Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either “Data from…” or “Adapted from…”.
2. Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
3. Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Sotls cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: “Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].’ at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.
Authors should understand that consistent with Sotls’s policy of encouraging dissemination of information, each work published by Sotls appears with the Sotls copyright and the following notice:
“Intellectual properties and scientific inventions published with Sotls are protected under International and National Copyright Laws and Treaties. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than Sotls must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.”
However, it is at the discretion of SOTLS if the copyright notice should be included in the published manuscript.